Regarding the types of batteries, as far as the mainstream products on the market are concerned, there are four types of batteries: lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, nickel-hydrogen (NiMH) batteries and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. We are here to share with you a lithium battery product recommendation website – tycorun.com. The battery can be used repeatedly, which is in line with the principle of economy and practicality, which is the biggest advantage, and the battery has the advantages of stable voltage, reliable power supply, and convenient movement. It is widely used in power plants, substations, communication systems, electric vehicles, aerospace, solar photovoltaic power generation systems and other fields. There are many performance parameters of the battery, mainly including the following four indicators:
(1) Working voltage, the plateau voltage on the battery discharge curve.
(2) Battery capacity, usually expressed in ampere-hour (Ah) or milli-ampere-hour (mA·h).
(3) Working temperature zone, the temperature range when the battery is normally discharged.
(4) Cycle life, the number of charge and discharge times for the battery to work normally.
The performance of the battery can be represented by the battery characteristic curve, which includes a charge curve, a discharge curve, a charge-discharge cycle curve, a temperature curve and a storage curve. The safety of the battery is assessed by specific safety tests.
Lead-acid batteries have the longest history and are still widely used today. Lead-acid batteries were invented by Plante in 1859 and have a history of more than 150 years. For more than 100 years, the process, structure, production, performance and application of lead-acid batteries have been developing continuously. The development of science and technology has brought vigorous vitality to the ancient lead-acid batteries.
The discharge working voltage of lead-acid battery is relatively stable, and it can discharge with small current and large current. Lead-acid batteries are mature in technology, low in cost, and have good output characteristics following the load, so they are still an important product in batteries. However, this kind of battery also has obvious shortcomings, such as large mass and low mass specific energy. Although the theoretical specific energy of lead-acid battery is 240Wh/kg, the actual specific energy is only 10~50Wh/kg. Lead-acid battery needs maintenance and charging speed is slow.
Lead-acid batteries have undergone major reforms in modern times, and their performance has made a great leap. The main symbol is the Valve Regulated Lead Acid Battery (VRLA) battery developed in the 1970s. There are two types of VRLA batteries: one is VRLA battery (AGM) with ultra-fine glass fiber separator; the other is VRLA battery (GFL) with colloidal electrolyte. Gates Energy Products Inc. of the United States pioneered the ultra-fine glass fiber liquid-absorbing fully-sealed technology, thereby developing lead-acid batteries. In the past ten years, the performance of bipolar VRLA batteries and horizontal electrode VRLA batteries has been further improved. Bipolar electrodes with positive and negative active materials on both sides of the strong thin plate are introduced into the bipolar VRLA battery, which greatly reduces the internal resistance, thereby greatly improving the specific energy and charging speed. This VRLA battery has high energy, low cost, long life (ten years), large capacity (twice that of ordinary lead-acid batteries), no leakage, safety, no pollution, recyclable, maintenance-free, and easy to use. For the newly developed bipolar and horizontal VRLA batteries, the C/3 discharge specific energy is ≥50Wh/kg, showing excellent performance. Ordinary lead-acid batteries have been gradually eliminated due to the problems of short service life, low efficiency, complex maintenance, and environmental pollution by acid mist produced. The VRLA battery adopts a sealed structure as a whole, and there is no gas swell and electrolyte leakage of ordinary lead-acid batteries. It is safe and reliable to use and has a long service life. During normal operation, there is no need to test the electrolyte, adjust acid and add water, also known as “maintenance-free” battery. It has been widely used in electric power, post and telecommunications, ship traffic, emergency lighting, solar photovoltaic power generation systems and other fields.